GUIDE:ON HOW TO GROW AND CARE RED ROSES

GUIDE:ON  HOW TO GROW AND CARE RED ROSES
red rose

Roses are a relatively durable flower that require less maintenance than one might anticipate, despite their appearance of being delicate.

Rose maintenance doesn’t have to be a difficult endeavour, and with the right care, it can even increase the value of your property. Here, we’ll look at a few straightforward recommendations for caring for roses that even novice gardeners may follow.

BARELY PRUNE
To keep them blooming into the fall, roses require upkeep in the middle of the summer. It’s time to give your plants a summer pruning once this most recent rush of blooms has passed, or right now if your roses aren’t looking rosy.

This is not the late winter short-back-and-sides pruning; rather, it is a lighter pruning to eliminate old blossoms and promote new growth.

The goal is to prune as though you were picking long-stemmed roses. Don’t just cut off withered flowers to deadhead your plants. To remove 20 to 30 cm of the old growth, put on gloves, grab the secateurs, and cut the stems back to an outward-facing bud near the base of each stem.

Rose care
The roses put on a lot of new growth as a direct result of this pruning. In order to support the new growth, it is crucial to supply more food and water because this uses up the plant’s energy reserves.

If the soil is dry, irrigate it thoroughly to ensure that moisture permeates the ground. As long as the roses are growing and blooming, keep giving them thorough soaks of water at least once a week.

WATER AND MULCH Water each plant, then surround it with a few handfuls of pelletized organic manure or rose food. Add some organic mulch on top, like compost or old manure.

A mulched area is necessary for roses. It not only feeds the plant and nourishes the soil, but it also keeps the soil moist, makes the soil cooler on hot days, and suppresses weed growth. After pruning, your plants should be back in bloom in around six to eight weeks.

Common deases in roses

Black spot

A common and dangerous rose disease called black spot frequently reaches epidemic proportions in a season. Black spot disease is brought on by the fungus Diplocarpon rosae. After prolonged wet, warm spells in the spring, it is at its worst. On rose leaves, symptoms appear as round, black spots that enlarge to 12-inch in diameter and are encircled by a yellow region. Often, infected leaves fall off the plant. Over the course of the summer, the infection persisted. First-year canes’ juvenile wood develops elevated, erratic purple-red patches. Stunted plants yield fewer, paler blooms. Severely afflicted plants may have lost all of their leaves by mid-summer.

Treatment & Prevention: By adhering to certain cultural customs, black spot can be halted in its tracks and subsequent infections can be minimised.

varieties resistant to plants (See the following list)
Maintaining good sanitation is essential for preventing the spread of disease in the future. Remove any fallen leaves, debris, and any contaminated leaves from the ground in the fall or winter. Before the springtime regrowth of the roses begins, replace the old layer of mulch with a new one.

Black spot-affected canes exhibit dark or reddish spots; remove and destroy them (lesions). Depending on the variety and cultivar, severely affected plants should be trimmed back in the winter or early spring to within 1 to 2 inches of the bud union. As soon as diseased leaves sprout throughout the growing season, pluck them and throw them away.

Keep Leaves Dry: It is advisable to avoid watering plants throughout the late afternoon or early evening with overhead irrigation. Water-saving soaker hoses are a great tool for watering roses. Planting roses in broad sun will hasten the drying of the leaves. New plants should be placed far enough apart to ensure adequate air circulation.

To effectively control black spot, even on resistant cultivars, use fungicide sprays. When there are favourable environmental factors for susceptible cultivars to acquire a disease, a strict fungicide regimen must be followed. If the disease is serious enough to require control, pick one of the following fungicide sprays: chlorothalonil, mancozeb, myclobutanil, propiconazole, or copper fungicides. For examples of items, see Table 1. Apply all chemicals in accordance with the label’s instructions.

Another common and harmful disease that affects roses is powdery mildew. Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae, the fungus that causes powdery mildew on roses, secretes a powdery substance that is grayish-white and covers young leaves, shoots, and buds. There may be some leaf drop and deformed leaves on infected leaves. Additionally, some flower buds might not open at all, and those that do might provide subpar flowers. When the relative humidity is high at night and low during the day, together with mild temperatures (70 to 80 °F), it can happen virtually anytime during the growing season. In shaded places and during cooler months, it is most severe.

Treatment & Prevention: Resistant rose types are the strongest line of defence against powdery mildew because rose variations vary in their sensitivity to the illness. In years with considerable spring and summer rainfall, management treatments might not be necessary until the drier months of late summer because a coating of water slows infection. During the growth season, remove and destroy any sick canes and leaves. In the fall, rake up and remove the leaves from beneath the plant.

Choose a fungicide that manages both black spot and powdery mildew if the disease is severe enough to require chemical control. Propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, myclobutanil, sulphur, neem oil (clarified hydrophobic extract), or baking soda combined with horticultural oil are among the fungicide sprays that are advised for use in the home garden. For examples of items, see Table 1. Apply all chemicals in accordance with the label’s instructions.

powdery meldew.

Another common and harmful disease that affects roses is powdery mildew. Sphaerotheca pannosa var. rosae, the fungus that causes powdery mildew on roses, secretes a powdery substance that is grayish-white and covers young leaves, shoots, and buds. There may be some leaf drop and deformed leaves on infected leaves. Additionally, some flower buds might not open at all, and those that do might provide subpar flowers. When the relative humidity is high at night and low during the day, together with mild temperatures (70 to 80 °F), it can happen virtually anytime during the growing season. In shaded places and during cooler months, it is most severe.

Treatment & Prevention: Resistant rose types are the strongest line of defence against powdery mildew because rose variations vary in their sensitivity to the illness. In years with considerable spring and summer rainfall, management treatments might not be necessary until the drier months of late summer because a coating of water slows infection. During the growth season, remove and destroy any sick canes and leaves. In the fall, rake up and remove the leaves from beneath the plant.

Choose a fungicide that manages both black spot and powdery mildew if the disease is severe enough to require chemical control. Propiconazole, thiophanate-methyl, myclobutanil, sulphur, neem oil (clarified hydrophobic extract), or baking soda combined with horticultural oil are among the fungicide sprays that are advised for use in the home gardens.

Hybrid tea “Pride N Joy” is black spot-resistant.
“Sexy Rexy,” a floribunda
“Prima Donna” grandiflora
Moderate Black Spot & Powdery Mildew Resistant:
Tea hybrid: “Duet,” Grand Slam, Jamaica, Matterhorn, Eiffel Tower,
Floribunda: “Saratoga” and “Golden Slipper”
“Camelot,” “John S. Armstrong,” “Pink Parfait,” and “Queen Elizabeth” are among the grandiflora.
Roses from shrubs: “All That Jazz” and “Carefree Wonder”

Rugosa roses that are resistant to black spot, powdery mildew, and cercospora leaf spot include “Blanc Double de Coubert,” “Fru Dagmar Hastrup” (also known as “Frau Dagmar Hartopp”) ‘Topaz Jewel,’ ‘Rugosa Alba,’
Rose of Alba: “Alba Semi-Plena”
Branch Canker and Dieback
On rose canes, cankers typically show up as dead or discoloured regions and range in colour from light tan to dark purplish-brown. Numerous fungal species, such as Botryosphaeria, Leptosphaeria, Coniothyrium, and Cryptosporella, are responsible for their development. These fungi infest healthy canes by penetrating wounds brought on by winter damage, poor pruning, wind, hail, or flower cutting. Cankers can grow until they encircle the cane and/or reach the plant’s base (crown), at which point they can spread to adjacent canes and eventually destroy the plant. They frequently appear on roses that have been weakened by cold, black spot, or inadequate nutrition.

There are no fungicides available that are specifically designed to control stem canker. Controlling insects, powdery mildew, and black spot will keep your plants healthy. The ensuing cultural practises can reduce the spread of disease.

Preventing Plant Damage During Transplanting, Cultivating, Pruning, and Flower Cutting: One of the main ways the fungus penetrates the plant is through wounds.
Pruning Correctly: to cut a blossom that faces outward. By doing this, it will be easier to prevent the plant from having too many branches that might cross each other and rub.
Remove and eliminate all canes that are infected or dead right away. Pruning should be done at a 45-degree angle, about one-fourth inch above an outward-facing bud node, with all cuts made well below the diseased areas and without harming the nodal tissue. During the spring, prune living canes.not tumble. After using cutting tools on a sick plant, sterilize them in a solution of one part household bleach to nine parts water.

Rust on leave

The fungi in the genus Phragmidium are the source of the illness known as rose rust. On stems and leaves, it results in the development of orange dots. An orange dust-like substance may be visible on the surface of the plant and on the ground underneath it when rust is severe. All plant parts, excluding the roots and petals, are vulnerable to rose rust. Highly susceptible cultivars’ severely afflicted leaves may turn yellow or brown and fall off.

treatment: Provide good air circulation for prevention and treatment. Avoid placing roses in densely populated locations, and prune to keep plant centres open. Before midday, avoid wetting the leaves by watering your plants. Diseased plant parts should be removed and destroyed. Fresh mulch should be applied all around the rose plants. While fungicides containing myclobutanil or propiconazole are foliar systemic (the active components go into the leaves) and may provide better management of an existing disease, fungicides containing chlorothalonil, mancozeb, or sulphur are protectant fungicides to prevent rust disease on plants. For examples of items, see Table 1. Apply all chemicals in accordance with the label’s instructions. : Provide good air circulation for prevention and treatment. Avoid placing roses in densely populated locations, and prune to keep plant centres open. Before midday, avoid wetting the leaves by watering your plants. Diseased plant parts should be removed and destroyed. Fresh mulch should be applied all around the rose plants. While fungicides containing myclobutanil or propiconazole are foliar systemic (the active components go into the leaves) and may provide better management of an existing disease, fungicides containing chlorothalonil, mancozeb, or sulphur are protectant fungicides to prevent rust disease on plants. For examples of items, see Table 1. Apply all chemicals in accordance with the label’s instructions.

Botrytis Blight

The fungi in the genus Phragmidium are the source of the illness known as rose rust. On stems and leaves, it results in the development of orange dots. An orange dust-like substance may be visible on the surface of the plant and on the ground underneath it when rust is severe. All plant parts, excluding the roots and petals, are vulnerable to rose rust. Highly susceptible cultivars’ severely afflicted leaves may turn yellow or brown and fall off.

prevention and treatment Provide good air circulation for prevention and treatment. Avoid placing roses in densely populated locations, and prune to keep plant centres open. Before midday, avoid wetting the leaves by watering your plants. Diseased plant parts should be removed and destroyed. Fresh mulch should be applied all around the rose plants. While fungicides containing myclobutanil or propiconazole are foliar systemic (the active components go into the leaves) and may provide better management of an existing disease, fungicides containing chlorothalonil, mancozeb, or sulphur are protectant fungicides to prevent rust disease on plants. For examples of items, see Table 1. Apply all chemicals in accordance with the label’s instructions

Rosette Disease:The Rose rosette virus (RRV) is the cause of the incurable disease Rose rosette disease, which is carried by the Rose leaf curl mite while the mite is feeding on the rose (Phyllocoptes fructiplilus). This incredibly tiny eriophyid mite feeds on the sap of the leaf petioles and delicate stems. When feeding alone, the rose leaf curl mite doesn’t do much harm, but if it is an RRV carrier, the rose will start to show symptoms within one to three months.

On diseased branches, roses have crimson terminal growth, and the stems grow thicker and more succulent than those on uninfected areas of the plant. These stems have an unusually high density of flexible thorns that can be either green or red in colour. The rose leaves that grow on infected branches are smaller than usual and may even be distorted, similar to the damage caused by 2,4-D herbicide. The witch’s broom symptom, which is similar to glyphosate (RoundupTM) harm on roses, can be caused by lateral branches growing excessively from main stems. The petals may be twisted and fewer in number, and flowering is diminished.

The majority of the time, these symptoms start to show up in the late spring to early summer and worsen throughout the growth season. Once the rose is infected, the RRV spreads throughout the plant, making the whole thing contagious. By the time a rose exhibits symptoms, the eriophyid mites may have already disseminated the disease to nearby plants. Usually, infected plants pass away after a few years.

prevention and treatment: Any neighbouring wild plants should be pulled up and properly disposed of since the wild multiflora rose is highly vulnerable to the rose rosette disease. Any contaminated, grown roses need to be removed right away, burnt, or bagged for garbage collection. Remove any roots as well, as they can subsequently resprout. Leave an afflicted plant that has been plucked from the ground; otherwise, the mites may move on to infest other plants. Keep rose plants apart so they don’t contact.

Grafting asymptomatic stems onto other rose plants will spread the virus because RRV is systemic throughout the infected rose plants. Before using pruners on uninfected plants, pruners used on diseased plants must be cleaned with rubbing alcohol or a weak solution of bleach since the sap on the pruners is contaminated with the virus.

Every two weeks between April and September, adjacent roses can be sprayed with bifenthrin to prevent the eriophyid mites from spreading from the location of an afflicted rose. This might stop the spread of illness to more plants. For a list of brands and products that include bifenthrin, see Table 1. Always read product labels to ensure that the active component is right. the usage instructions on the label.

Rose Mosaic :The Rose Mosaic Virus (RMV) has a wide range of symptoms. Some rose varietals will develop yellow wavy line patterns, ring spots, and mottles on their leaves at some point throughout the growth season. In general, spring is when symptoms are most noticeable. RMV symptoms like yellow net and mosaic on the leaves also reduce the quality of the plant as a whole. Weaker and more vulnerable to harm from other stresses, such as drought or cold temperatures, infected plants are more susceptible to infection.

prevention and treatment:Plants with virus infections cannot be saved. Through root grafts, rose mosaic spreads slowly, if at all, in mature rose plantings. Infected plants should be removed, bagged, and disposed of. Only purchase healthy plants from reliable vendors, and stay away from plants that exhibit any signs of mosaic disease.

CROWN GALL: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a bacterium that lives in the soil and infects many ornamentals in the home garden, is the culprit behind this disease. Round swellings, or galls, on stems or roots that typically appear at or just below the soil’s surface are the symptoms. However, pruning locations may also develop galls. When young, the galls are pale green or almost white. The galls mature and turn woody as they grow older; they might be little nodules or areas that are several inches large. The galls weaken and stunt the top of the plant by obstructing the flow of water and nutrients coming up from the roots and stems.

prevention and treatment: Agrobacterium tumefaciens, a bacterium that lives in the soil and infects many ornamentals in the home garden, is the culprit behind this disease. Round swellings, or galls, on stems or roots that typically appear at or just below the soil’s surface are the symptoms. However, pruning locations may also develop galls. When young, the galls are pale green or almost white. The galls mature and turn woody as they grow older; they might be little nodules or areas that are several inches large. The galls weaken and stunt the top of the plant by obstruc0ting the flow of water and nutrients coming up from the roots and stem

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